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"The true title of every book ever written is 'how to be more like me'


What is emotional processing?
Emotional processing & psychological therapy
Measuring emotional processing
Emotional processing & psychological disorder
Emotional processing & panic attacks
Emotional processing & physical health
Emotional processing & gender
Emotional processing & forgiveness
Tears - nature's emotional processing?
Emotional processing & older people
Scientific conundrums


Emotional processing and psychological therapy

Catharsis, venting and the talking cure
Core components for an emotional processing therapy

Is behaviour therapy really emotion therapy in disguise?
Is it possible to bottle up emotions?

General references on emotional processing and psychological therapy


Borod,J.C., Welowitz, J., Alpert, M., Brozgold, A.Z., Bartin, C., Paselow, E. & Dillier, L. (1990). Parameters of emotional processing in neuropsychiatric disorders: Conceptual issues and a battery of tests. Journal of communication disorders, Special Issue: Faces, voices and feelings: Experimental techniques and clinical implications,. 23, 247-271. 

Bozarth, J. & Brodley, B. (1991) Actualisation: A functional concept in client-centred therapy.  Handbook of Self-Actualisation, Vol 6(5), 45-60

Cain, D. & Seeman, J. (2001) Handbook of research and practice in humanistic psychotherapies.  Washington DC: APA Publications

Derogatis, L. and Melisaratos, N. (1983). The Brief Symptom Inventory: an Introductory Report. Psychological Medicine. 13, 595-605.

Elliott, R., Greenberg, L.S. & Lietaer, G. (2003)  Research on experiential therapies.  In M.J. Lambert (Ed) Bergin & Garfield's Handbook of psychotherapy and behaviour change (5th ed, pp 493-539)

Ellis, J.A. & D'Eon, J. L. (2002). Pain, emotion, and the situational specificity of catastrophising. Cognition and emotion. 16(4), 519-532. 

Greenberg, L.S. & Rice, L.N. (1981) the specific effects of a Gestalt intervention.  Psychotherapy: Theory, Research & Practice 18, 31-37

Greenberg, L.S. & Safran, J.D. (1989) Emotion in psychotherapy.  American Psychologist, 44, 19-29

Greenberg, L.D. & Watson, J. (1998) Experiential therapy of depression: Differential effects of client centred relationship conditions and active experiential interventions.  Psychotherapy Research, 8, 210-224

Herpertz, S.C., Sass H. (2000).  Emotional deficiency and psychopathy.  Behavioral Sciences and the Law.  18(5): 567-580. 

Jenkins, J. & Oatley, K. (2000). Psychopathology and short term emotion: the balance of affects. Journal of child psychiatry. 41(4), 463-472. 

Keltner, D., & Kring, A.M. (1998).  Emotion, social function and psychopathology.  Review of General Psychology, 2, 230-342. 

Kring, A.M., Bachorowski, J.A. (1999).  Emotions and psychopathology.  Cognition and Emotion, 13(5): 575-599. 

Lambert et al (1999).  Emotions and Psychopathology.  The West Indian Medical Journal, 48(4), 203-7. 

Lubin, B., Van Whitlock, R., and Zukerman, M. (1998).  Affect traits in differential diagnosis of anxiety, depressive and schizophrenic disorders using the Multiple Affect Adjective Check List Revised.  Assessment, 5(4): 309-319. 

Lundh, L.G. et al. (2001). Cognitive bias, emotion, and somatic complaints in a normal sample. Cognition and emotion. 15(3), 249-277. 

Matthews, A. and Macleod, C. (1994). Cognitive Approaches to Emotional Disorders. Annual Review of Psychology. 45, 25-50. 

Mearns, D. & Thorne, B. (2000) Person-centred therapy today: new frontiers in theory and practice.  London: Sage

Ochsner, K.N. et al. (2002). Rethinking Feelings: An fMRI Study of the Cognitive Regulation of Emotion. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience. 14(8), 1215-1229. 

Offer, R., Laive, R., Gothelf, D. &  Apter, A. (2000).  Defense mechanisms, negative emotions, and psychopathology in adolescent inpatients.  Comprehensive Psychiatry, 41(1): 35-41. 

Rogers, C.R. (1951) Client-centred therapy.  Boston, MA: Houghton-Mifflin

Rogers, C.R. & Dymond R. (1954) Psychotherapy and personality change.  Chicago: University of Chicago Press

Roseman, I. Et al. (1996). Appraisal Determinants of Emotion: Constructing a More Accurate and Comprehensive Theory. Cognition and Emotion. Vol. 10(3), 241-277. 

Scott Brown, L. and Wright, J. (2001). Attachment Theory in Adolescence and its relevance to Developmental Psychopathology. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy. 8, 15-32.   

Stiles, W.B. & Glick, M.J. (2002) Future directions in research on humanistic psychotherapy.  In D.J. Cain & J. Seeman (Eds), Humanistic psychotherapies:  Handbook of research and practice (pp 605-616) Washington DC: American Psychological Association

Truax, C. & Carkhuff, R. (1967) Toward effective counselling and psychotherapy.  Chicago: Aldine

Watts, F.N. (1992).  Applications of current cognitive theories of the emotions to the conceptualisation of emotion disorders.  British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 31, 153-167.

Whelton, W. (2004) Emotional processes in psychotherapy: evidence across therapeutic modalities.  Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, 11, 57-8

Catharsis, venting and the talking cure


Bushman, B.J. (2002) Does venting anger feed or extinguish the flame?  Catharsis, rumination, distraction, anger and aggressive responding.  Personality & social Psychology Bulletin, 28(6), 724-731

Freud, S. & Brewer, J. (1893) On the psychical mechanism phenomena: preliminary communication in studies in hysteria, Standard Edition 2,3

Freud, S. & Brewer, J (1895) Studies in hysteria

Freud, S.  Selected papers on hysteria

Kennedy-Moore, E.& Watson, J.C. (1999) Expression emotion.  Guildford Press, New York

Tavris, C. (1984) On the wisdom of counting to ten; personal and social dangers of anger expression.  In P Shaver (Ed) Reviewing personality and social psychology, Vol 5, Beverly Hills, Sage

Tavris, D. (1989) Anger.  The misunderstood emotion.  New York: Simon & Schuster

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