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What is emotional processing?
Emotional processing & psychological therapy
Measuring emotional processing
Emotional processing & psychological disorder
Emotional processing & panic attacks
Emotional processing & physical health
Emotional processing & gender
Emotional processing & forgiveness
Tears - nature's emotional processing?
Emotional processing & older people
Scientific conundrums


What is emotional processing?

Possible mechanisms
Emotional processing model
Perspectives from philosophy
General references on 'What is emotional processing?




Rachman, S. (1980). Emotional processing, Behaviour Research and Therapy, 18, 51-60.

Rachman, S. (2001).  Emotional processing, with special reference to post-traumatic stress disorder. International Review of Psychiatry, 13, 164-171.


Possible mechanisms


Brewin, C.R., Dalgleish T. & Joseph S (1996)  A dual representation theory of post traumatic stress disorder.  Psychological Review 103 670-686

Brewin, C.R. & Holmes E.A. (2003)  Psychological theories of post traumatic stress disorder.  Clinical Psychology Review 23, 339-376

Bucci, W. (1997) Symptoms and symbols: A multiple code theory of somatization.  Psychoanalytic Inquiry 17, (2), 151-172

Epstein, S. (1994)  Integration of the cognitive and the psychodynamic unconscious.  American Psychologist 49, (8), 709-724

Foa, E.B. & Kozak, M.J. (1986)  Emotional processing of fear: Exposure to corrective information.  Pschological Bulletin 99, (1), 20-35

Gidron, Y., Duncan, E., Lazar A., Biderman A., Tandeter H., Shvartzman P. (2002)  Effects of guided written disclosure of stressful experiences on clinic visits and symptoms in frequent clinic attenders.  Family Practice 19, (2), 161-165

Greenberg, L.S. & Safran J.D. (1987) Emotion in Psychotherapy, London: The Guildford Press

Horowitz, M.J. (1979) Psychological response to serious life events in V. Hamilton & D.M. Warberton (Eds) Human stress and cognition.  New York: Wiley

Horowitz, M.J. (1986) Stress response syndrome (2nd ed) Northvale, NJ

Horowitz, M.J., Markman H.C., Stinson C.H., Fridhandler B. & Ghannam J.H. (1990) A classification theory of defences in J.L. Singer (Ed) Repression and dissociation: implications for personality theory, Psychopathology & Health, Chicago: University of Chicago Press

Lang, P.J. (1977) Imagery in therapy.  An information processing analysis of fear.  Behaviour Therapy, 8, 862-886

Lang, P.J. (1979) An bio-informational theory of emotional imagery.  Psychophysiology

Lang, P.J. (1985) The cognitive psychophysiology of emotion: fear and anxiety.  In A.H. Tuma & J. Maser (Eds) Anxiety and the anxiety disorders (pp 131-170) Hillsdale, N.J: Erlbaum

LeDoux, J.E. (1993) Emotional memory system in the brain.  Behavioural Brain Research, 58, 69-79

LeDoux, J. (1998) The emotional brain.  New York, Touchstone

Leventhal, H. (1979) A perceptual motor processing model of emotion.  In P. Pliner, K. Blanenstein & I.M. Spiegel (Eds) Perception of emotion in self and others, Vol 5, New York, Plenum Press

Samoilov, A. & Goldfried, M.R. (2000).  Role of emotion in cognitive-behaviour therapy.  Clinical Psychology, Science and Practice, 7 (4), 373-383

Teasdale, J.D. (1999) Emotional processing, three modes of mind and the prevention of relapse of depression.  Behaviour Research & Therapy, 37, S37-S77

Emotional processing model


Baker, R. (2001) An emotional processing model for counselling and psychotherapy: a way forward?  Counselling in Practice 7(1), 8-11

Baker, R., Thomas, S., Thomas, P., Holloway, J., Horne, S. & Lothian, S. (2002) Development of a new emotional processing scale for use in physical and psychological health.  July 2003, 12th Conference of the International Society for Research on Emotions, Cuenca, Spain

Baker, R., Thomas, S., Thomas, P., Holloway, J., Horne, S. & Lothian, S. (2002) Development of a new emotional processing scale for use in physical and psychological health. September 2003, 3rd International Conference on the (Non) Expression of Emotions in Health & Disease, Tilburg University, Netherlands

Baker R., Thomas S., Thomas P., Owens M., (2007) Development of an Emotional Processing Scale.  Psychomatic Research 62:/67-178

Baker R, Thomas s, Thomas P, Gower P, Santonastaso M, Whittlesea A (2010) The emotional processing: scale refinement and abridgement (EPS-25).  Psychosomatic Research, 68,83-88

Holloway J., Owens M., Baker R. (2002, updated 2003, 2004)  Information Booklet: Emotional Processing Research.  Unpublished document, Dorset Research & Development Support Unit, Poole Hospital, Dorset


Perspectives from philosophy


Aristotle on the art of poetry (1920)  Translated by Ingram Bywater, Oxford: Clarendon

Brener, C. (1957) the nature and development of the concept of repression on Frued's writings.  Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, 12, 19-46

Descartes, R. (1901) Meditations on First Philosophy.  Translated by John Veitch.  The Classical Library ''.
Retrieved 20.08.03

Freud, S. (1915). Repression. Collected Papers IV. Zeitshrift, Vol III.

Freud, S. (1984) Functional somatic symptoms and hypochondriasis: a survey of controlled studies.  Archives of General Psychiatry, 32, 1021-1028

Heidegger, M. (1927) Being and time.  J. Macquarrie & E. Robinson, trans. San Francisco: HarperCollins, 1962

Hume, D. (1739) A Treatise of Human Nature: Being an attempt to introduce the experimental method of reasoning into moral subjects.  3 volumes; volumes 1 and 2, London, John Noon, 1739; volume 3, London, Thomas Longman, 1740

Laing, R.D. (1959) The Divided Self.  London: Tavistock

Nietzsche, F. (1889) Thus Spake Zarathustra.  London: Unwin

Politics by Aristotle.  Translated by Benjamin Jowett.  Constitution Society ''.  Retrieved 20.08.03

Priest, S. (Ed) (2000) Jean-Paul Sartre: Basic Writings.  London: Routledge

The Republic by Plato.  Translated by Benjamin Jowett.  The Internet Classics Archive ''.  Retrieved 20.08.03


General references on what is emotional processing?


Aldwin, C.M., Levenson, M.R., Spiro III, A., Bosse, R. (1989).  Does Emotionality Predict Stress? Findings from the Normative Aging Study. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56(4): 618-624. 

Allender, J. and Kaszniak, A.W. (1989).  Processing of Emotional Cues in Patients with Dementia of the Alzheimer’s Type.  International Journal of Neuroscience, 46: 147-155. 

Anderson, A.K., Phelps, E.A (2000).  Expression without recognition.  Contributions of the human amygdala to emotional communication.  Psychological Science, 11(2): 106-111. 

Barrett, L.F. et al. (2001). Knowing what you're feeling and knowing what to do about it: Mapping the relation between emotion differentiation and emotion regulation. Cognition and Emotion. 25(6), 713-724. 

Berridge, K.C. & Winkielman, P. (2003). What is an unconscious emotion? (the case for unconscious "liking"). Cognition and emotion. 17(2), 181-211. 

Bonanno, G.A., & Field, N.P.  (2001). Examining the delayed grief hypothesis across 5 years of bereavement.  American Behavioral Scientist, 44(5), 798-816. 

Bucci, W. (1982). The vocalisation of painful affect. Journal of communication disorders. 15, 415-440. 

Bucci, W. (1998). Transformation of Meanings in the Analytic Discourse: A Strategy for Research. Canadian Journal of Psychoanalysis. 6(2), 233-60. 

Carver, C.S.(1989). Assessing Coping Strategies: Theoretically Based Approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol.56 (2), 267-283. 

Dawkins, K. and Furnham, A. (1989).  The colour naming of emotional words.  British Journal of Psychology, 80, 383-389. 

Dodd, M. and Bucci, W. (1987). The relationship of cognition and affect in the orientation process. Cognition. 27, 37-71. 

Dolan, R.J. (2002). Emotion, Cognition, and Behaviour. Science's Compass. Vol 298, 1191-1193. 

Epstein, S. (1973). The Self-Concept Revisited: Or a Theory of a Theory. American Psychologist. May 1973. 404-416

Epstein, S. (1994).  Integration of the Cognitive and Psychodynamic Unconscious.  American Psychologist, 49 (8), 709-724.

Epstein, S., Pacini, R., Denes-Raj, V., and Heier, H. (1996).  Individual Differences in Intuitive-Experiential and Analytical-Rational Thinking Styles.  Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71(2): 390-405. 

Flett, G.L., Blankstein, K.R., Bator, C. and Pliner, P. (1989).  Affect Intensity and Self-Control of Emotional Behaviour, 10(1): 1-5. 

Foa, E.B., & Kozak, M.J. (1986).  Emotional processing of fear: exposure to corrective information.  Psychological Bulletin, 99, 20-35. 

Frijda, N.H. (1988) The laws of emotion.  American Psychologist 43, 349-358

Gable,S.L. et al. (2000). Behavioural Activation and Inhibition in Everyday Life. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Vol. 78, 1135-1149. 

Gross, J.J. & Levenson, R.W. (1997). Hiding Feelings: The acute effects of inhibiting negative and positive emotion. Journal of abnormal psychology. 106(1), 95-103. 

Heller, W. et al (1997) Neuropsychological correlates of arousal in self-reported emotion.  Cognition and Emotion 11(4), 383-402

Horowitz, M.J. (1993). Topics and Signs: Defensive Control of Emotional Expression. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 61(3), 421-430. 

Izard et al (2001).  Emotion knowledge as a predictor of social behaviour and academic competence in children at risk.  Psychological Science, 12, 18-23. 

Leventhal, H. (1982) The integration of emotion and cognition: a view from the perceptual-motor theory of emotion.  In M.S. Clarke & S.T. Fiske (Eds) Affect and cognition, Hillsdale, NJ, Eribaum

Leventhal, H. (1984) A perceptual motor theory of emotion.  In L. Berkowitz (Ed) Advances in experimental social sychology, Vol 17, New York, Academic Press

Lynch, T.R. et al. (2001). A mediational model relating affect intensity, emotion inhibition, and psychological distress. Behaviour therapy. 32(3), 519-536. 

Mayer, J.D., & Geher, G. (1996).  Emotional intelligence and the identification of emotion.  Intelligence, 22, 89-113. 

Mayne, T.J. & Bonanno G.A. (2001) Emotions: current issues and future directions.  The Guildford Press, London

Nelson, L.D., and Cicchetti, D.V. (1995).  Assessment of Emotional Functioning in Brain-Impaired Individuals.  Psychological Assessment, 7(3): 404-413. 

Pally, R. (1998).  Emotional processing: The mind-body connection.  International Journal of PsychoAnalysis, 79(2): 349-362. 

Pennebaker, J.W., Mayne, T.J & Francis, M.E. (1997).  Linguistic predictors of adaptive bereavement.  Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 72: 864-871. 

Rachman, S. (1980).  Emotional Processing.  Behaviour Research and Therapy, 18, 51-60 

Rachman, S. (2001). Emotional processing, with special reference to post-traumatic stress disorder. International Review of Psychiatry. 13, 164-171 

Reddy, W.M. (2001) The navigation of feeling.  Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Russell, B. (1991) History of Western Philosophy.  London: Routledge

Roberts, W.L. (1999).  The socialization of emotional expression: Relations with prosocial behaviour and competence in five samples.  Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 31(2): 72-85. 

Russell, J.A. (2003) Core affect and the physiological construction of emotion.  Psychological Review 110(1), 145-172

Scherer, R.R. (1993) Neuroscience projections to current debates in emotion psychology.  Cognition and emotion 7(1), 1-41

Soloman, R.C. (1993) The Philosophy of Emotions.  In Handbook of Emotions.  Edited by Michael Lewis and Jeannette M. Haviland.  P3-15, New York: The Guildford Press

Sorabji, R. (2000) Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation.  Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Swinkels, A., & Giuliano, T.A. (1995).  The Measurement and Conceptualization of Mood Awareness: Monitoring and Labeling One’s Mood States.  Personality & Social Psychology, 21(9), 934-949.

Teasdale, J.D. (1999).  Emotional processing, three modes of mind and the  prevention of relapse in depression.  Behaviour Research and Therapy, 37 (Suppl 1): S53-S77. 

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